T2.6: Nature-Based Solutions, Frameworks & Water

Wery often the plans carried out are not enough framed or they remain just rhetoric on paper. The main challenge of these author is to provide a policy recommendation for land use control, by empowering the nature-based solutions and climate resilience on one hand, and try to extend this framework in different levels, from the neighbourhood to the regional scale.

In this session, the concept of urban resilience has been embodied by concrete frameworks, investigating different approaches to address it to climate change. So, in this case, the word “resilience” referred to something practical: all the authors try to design a framework and a methodology in order to enhance and supply the governments, since there is a huge gap in the governance models referred to resilience in climate change. 

Even though all the authors dealt with governance in climate resilience, the first one analysed the governance approach in an external point of view with a systematic literature review and a quantitative analysis of the methodologies used to assess climate resilience. In this case, a recommendation on the approach has been given, it didn’t deal with the planning in a practical way, but with the methodology. A possible gap of this case study could be the limitation of the research: the results reached depends on the literature review carried out, which could have considered also a larger patterns of case studies, obtaining different outputs. Instead, for the other case studies, the authors aim at giving a solid recommendation on planning, based on database collections, multilevel investigations such as morphological, natural-ecological, social and infrastructural. A part from the first one, all these others want to extend the climate urban resilient approach on different levels, spreading out in different scales. 

All the lectures assume that manmade interventions influenced and affected the natural water cycle and are addressed to persuade government to regulate the urban sprawl and developments. The critic and limit highlighted by all the authors is the high rigidity of the governments, so that every research is planned for a long term process in the future. 

Nature-based solutions and resilience as complementary strategies for urban governance and planning: A review of assessment methodologies
Marta Suàrez, Beatriz Fernàndez de Manuel, Leire Méndez-Fernàndez, Miren Onaindia, Erik Gòmez-Baggethun

The authors want to analyse the connections and differences within two different approaches, which address climate change. Cities are suffering the effect of climate change and governments are applying complementary strategies of mitigation and adaptation by using urban resilience (directed to reduce vulnerability and enhance community resilience) and natural-based solutions (concept related to ecosystem services, ecosystems based adaptations and Green-blues infrastructure). The main question is if these strategies have been implemented in an integrated manner and how these approaches address climate change. In order to do that, a systematic review of scientific literature has been carried out, searching methodologies to assess resilience or ecosystem services to address climate change impact in cities. The main result is that the majority of the papers analysed (90%) reports that the ecosystems services can increase climate urban resilience, so studies about resilience to ecosystem services are predominant (and not vice versa). The question not investigated yet is: does ES can take into consideration community resilience and/or include equity and justice? The authors in the end give some recommendations for the future: on one hand, the concept of Resilience and Ecosystem Services should be both integrated in the conceptual and methodological research; on the other one, the local government should take into account both of these concepts to reframe resilience strategies.

A framework for conceptualizing the resilience of urban green spaces in transition - The case of Frankfurt Rhine-Main
Pinar Bilgic

Planning for urban growth is already a problem: the regional housing demand until 2030 (taking into consideration refugee situation and domestic migration) is huge. The aim of this paper is to try to respond in a practice way to urban growth in Frankfurt Rhine-Main, by implementing green urban strategies: on one hand, by designing green around the city against urban densification (but it’s really hard because of promptness to floods and droughts), and on the other one, by designing green within cities against urban sprawl. Can be density be done right with balance? it’s a problem of sustainability: maybe we can make the inner city as green and compact as possible and then, instead of sprawling, we can build along the infrastructures. The approach used is the triangle of conflicting goals for planning (Campbell) in which economic development (embedded by social subsystems) and environmental protection (embedded by ecological subsystems) are in conflict. The limits and gap of this approach are the fact that government is too rigid and takes a lot of time to make decisions. More adaptive government can make the difference in the resilience process. On the other hand, there is the problem of complexity and uncertainty in urban processes. The main challenges of this research is try to influence the government to support resilient way of doing things, building bridges and achieve the SDG by understanding the complexity of the social ecological system within the composition of sustainability.

Water sensitive urban design: Addressing flooding resilience in Ho Chi Minh City
Mariana da Cunha Oliveira Santos

The author wants to address the research to integrate urban strategies with flood protection measures in the Ho Chi Minh City, refurbish the existing infrastructure in order to be resilient to flooding, create storage areas by improving the landscape and a network of stakeholders and public participation, in order to create and holistic assessment. In HCMC land uses are changing, the infrastructures are altering the natural water cycle with consequent risk of flooding and there is the climate change. The city is composed by a large network of rivers but the main one is reformed for economic market. Moreover, the hydrogeological network is complex and the city standard is to grow closer and closer to the river. The main issue is that the city is vulnerable to floods because the drainage system is not managed to support the growing city infrastructure and the urban increase. Structured measures to retain floods have been proposed from the government but they are resilient just for flooding and not for climate change; change in land use and lack of control to preserve permeable areas; lack of capacity in policy to regulate the housing demand and new developments; lack of knowledge and cooperation with the planning department. The method used is analysing the urban morphology and creating a BIM database with classification of architecture by land use; making flooding simulations, a urban analysis for maintenance level. The results of this research are addressed to give some recommendations and criteria for future land use, such as site of the plot and topography, innovative design solutions and technological innovations. It remains unsolved the assessment for effectiveness water sensitive urban design strategies, since it is the next step for the research.

The Healing Grid Project: unlocking the potential of Nature Based Solutions in Timisoara, Romania
Loredana Gaita

The author carried out a research for Timisoara, Romania, aiming at creating a connection of ecological corridors at municipal and regional level, trying to upscaling the project in multidisciplinary with ecological, infrastructural, social and morphological functions. The drainage channels are in great danger. The Healing Grid System is a project that uses nature-based solutions to increase the city resilience seeing the existing drainage system as an opportunity to create connections of green corridors, creating a blue-green infrastructure. The current situation is critical, since the channel system can collapse because of the urban sprawl, there is a lack of accessible green spaces in periphery and different urbanistic plans are not connected for every administration. The methodology used tries to create a dialogue between stakeholders, use new technologies to map the system preventing lack of knowledge and data, study of urban morphology and social-demographic disparities and creation of guides and awareness campaign for residents. Actually the author achieved the possibility to apply for European funds in order to start the pilot project but the main challenge is upscale it by a long term process addressing the system to different neighbourhoods, negotiating for the privatized areas and ensure a continuity of ecological corridors in regional scale.