TOPIC 04

T4.7: Resilience Itself

The overarching theme of this session is community resilience and the topic particularly called on responses around resilience itself. Contributions argued the inability of the resilience framework to include local knowledge and social capital generated into its strategies and oscillated between definitions around tensions of equilibrium and adaptation.
The overarching theme of this session is community resilience and the topic particularly called on responses around resilience itself. All the presentations had a diverse perspective on the subject, critically analysing the risks of proposed practises in Ecuador, the possibilities of regional and local food systems in Netherlands, the dangers of over-tourism on the ecosystem of a neighborhood in Kyoto, the microscopic local resilience frameworks developed in Jakarta and the role of design and urban planning in adaptive capacity in Colombia.
Advancing the evidence base for sustainable city-region food systems
Sigrid Wertheim-Heck, Melika Levelt, Lisa ten Brug, Jessica van Bossum

The session focused on the influence of cities in food system design and aims to investigate if localisation of food production is possible, in order to deal with the dependency of international trade, food processing and greenhouse emissions related to food flows. The interventions possibly relating to existing resilience implementations criticize the dichotomy of alternative food production and conventional large scale provision centers; without linking these two practises there can be no evidence for a resilience framework that could challenge the topic at hand. As a result, assumptions are created and the aim of this research is to challenge these assumptions in order to create methodologies. In this case resilience is not used as a metaphorical concept but aims to use qualitative and quantitative data, focusing on the city of Almere in the Netherlands. The research analyzes the process of three predominant stakeholders, producers, suppliers and consumers drawing on their interrelationships and stresses the importance of human relationships in network flows especially when it comes to mobility of goods. The key points in this session helped to analyse the complexity of stakeholder relations, and strived to create a flexible working framework, ending with the question how can the food market become regionalised?  

Guayaquil: critical analysis of its approaches towards urban resilience.
Xavier Mendez Abad, Kris Scheerlinck, Hans Leinfelder

The session provided a review and critical analysis of urban resilience planning in Guayaquil, Ecuador, by asking the question, resilience for who? In the context of a Latin American city torn by climate change, the research is questioning whether or not the practises related to resilience adaptation do not deal with the most vulnerable but actually even lead to an exacerbation of the existing inequalities. The interventions of the government’s urban regeneration plan mainly focus on the city center and in economic development, and a new study based on vulnerability index and indicators in practicality led to a disregard of the influences and real life effects of these implementations on the community level. The speaker stresses the inexistence of a capacity to absorb local knowledge and the capacity for this level is limited to risk management and not really proactive resilient design. The concluding remarks do not particularly launch new ideas but present the overarching risks and opportunities with this kind of implementation.

The Formation of the local-traditional Urban Settlement in the Globalised Environment: The case of “Garment City” Cipadu in Jakarta
Handi Chandra

This session was preoccupied with the relationship of locality placed within the modern urban phenomena of the city of Jakarta. Resilience in this case is used as a metaphorical concept to describe the microcosm of Cipadu in relation to the metropolis. The speaker started with a reference of the right to the city as a way of self-determination of a community within the urban context. The research of the local resilient framework revolves around the capacity of the community to organise, create, innovate and connect to the surrounding economic system. There was not a substantial critique to the existing resilience implementations, however the speaker analysed in depth the context of the case study in order to build a problem statement. The session concluded in the realisation of how this community has created a self-sustained city in itself connecting to a wider network of systems like this.

Managing Resilience in Neighborhood against Over-Tourism. Case Study on Kyoto
Daisuke Abe

This session focused on the challenge of over-tourism in Kyoto, Japan with a comparative research to Barcelona. Resilience in this case, is considered as the resilience of a community of local permanent residents against the threat of top down development, temporal and transient touristic flows and saturation of intangible community interconnections, therefore resilience was more connected to perseverance to a long term crisis of urban development transformations. The main issue is the lack of legislation or political will to deal with the rise of land price, displacement and change in land use. The research analyses institutional framework and regulations and draws connections for possible solutions with the case of Barcelona, however it doesn’t challenge existing resilience frameworks for this implementation and concludes with a precautionary remark of the impending challenges of over-tourism. 

Urban planning: Integrating resilience and sustainability in the regulatory framework
Francisco Garcia, Cecilia Ribalaygua

This session was the outcome of a four-year research investigation into how urban planning can influence climate change adaptation plans. The transdisciplinarity of the group narrowed the focus of the research from an urban planning, architectural perspective and aimed to develop replicable methodologies to increase adaptive capacities through quantitative evidence based strategies. The research stresses the importance of green infrastructure as a key strategy, and built on three case studies in different cities in Colombia as a testing ground for the framework. Although the aim of the research is to integrate planning and resilience, in reality, it uses pre-existing tools, indicators and methodologies without the ability to substantially reframe the paradigm itself. In addition, the speaker stressed the importance of local context and community-based knowledge but did not provide sufficient evidence on who is resilience supposed to benefit. The main strategies for adaptation that were developed, were a physical and legal identification of available regeneration areas and the ability to integrate these methodologies into the planning system.

The session addressed the topic of reframing urban resilience implementation by pointing out the gaps in the design of methodologies that can not synthesize the complexity of community knowledge production with the wider framework of national, regional legislation, development processes, and economic systems. Most of the sessions considered and challenged the question: resilience for who? It tried to do so by aiming at processes that could integrate local networks in general adaptedness or analyzed local systems striving to preserve or return to a fixed equilibrium or criticized resilience frameworks imposed by top-down institutions that could not reframe the paradigm in a way that allowed for local level transformations to the impending crisis. One of the most encouraging insights was the acknowledgment of the power of human relations in shifting the wider paradigm of network flows in a city.

T4.6: Resilience Observatories and Labs

In the session of resilience observatories and labs, resilience has been framed as bringing in sustainable solutions to complex social and environmental challenges. Resilience articulates inclusivity, holistic approach, multi-sectoral alliances, and connections to policy-makers and to the public, co-production and cooperation.

Building resilience has been argued as intersection of set of activities such as research, networking and communication & dissemination, mapping, co-production and training.  Nexus between socio-ecological-technical systems can be used as a new methodology to reframe resilience.  Application of innovative tools for incorporating local knowledge in resilience planning, bridging up the gap between theory and practice in urban resilience.

The role of observatories and labs in building resilience through knowledge creation, strategic research, mainstreaming climate change and environmental sustainability issues in decision making process have been discussed in this session. The authors have tried to justify their argument based on evidence based research outcomes and case studies from different part of the world. The presenters highlighted, how synergies between different cross cutting issues can be used as a new methodology to reframe resilience.  Application of innovative tools for incorporating local knowledge in resilience planning, bridging up the gap between theory and practice in urban resilience research have been emphasized in the discourses of this session. All the authors have emphasized the necessity of critical understanding of the SETS, because we have to enhance the adaptive capacity of SETS in order to build the resilience of a city. For which, community engagement, stakeholder mapping and participation are the essential tool.  

Advancing research and policy for sustainability: a framework for urban observatories
Patrick Bixler

Dr. Patrick Bixler has discussed about the Texas Metropolitan Observatories initiatives which have been started in this year and is part of Planet Texas 2050, a University of Texas-Austin grand challenges initiative. The project looks into climate change and urbanization process and its relation to water, energy and eco system services. It aims to bridge up the data gap towards the mitigation of the consequences of urbanization and climate change and working with Texas advancing computer station which is one of the super computers in the US to do the data integration model.  The project analyzes the historical dynamics of the texas metro region, current condition of the metro region, the implications of historic trends for the future and eventually shaping a sustainable and resilient future for Texas Metro Region. The key activities under this project have been planned are building blocks on big data, trans-disciplinary research, and Social-ecological-technical systems.  Adding these three building blocks, the derived principles are holistic framework, trans disciplinary approach, equity and transparency and creating an innovative platform. The project also aims to create a communication platform for dissemination and knowledge sharing purpose. It has been envisaged that Texas Metropolitan Observatories initiatives will facilitate the researchers, policymakers, public agencies, NGOs, Nonprofit and philanthropy organizations, general public in building resilience and sustainable cities.

Real-World Labs for co-producing Urban Resilience
Michael Ziehl

Mr. Michael Ziehl, in his ‘Real- World Labs for co-producing Urban Resilience’ paper has highlighted how active citizen involvement increases the resilience of various social–ecological–technical/built system (SETS) of urban systems. He has emphasized on adopting new instruments for cooperation that support citizens and municipalities to co-produce urban resilience. He has argued that application of real-world-labs can actually provide a framework to bridge theory and practice in urban resilience research. In his research, he used the Gängeviertel in Hamburg, a 13 storied building which is now developed by the City of Hamburg in cooperation with citizen organizations to create apartments, studios, workshops and a sociocultural center, as a real-world-lab. He has illustrated the applied research method and presents recommendations for action to coproduce urban resilience in his paper. He has pointed out that real world lab can be categorized into system knowledge the path of functionality in urban system, objective and orientation knowledge, transformation knowledge. To adopt the coproduction concept, researchers have to consider problem analysis, recent development, external values and ultimately learning. He has taken attempt to justify that co-producing urban resilience is possible through creating trust and appreciation, improving  collaborations, legitimizing exceptions of administrative regulations, deriving models for co-management practices, transforming planning practice towards higher adaptability.

[Eco]systems of resilience practices: a reframing from the Experience of Italian Resilience Practices Observatory
Angela Colucci, Giulia Pesaro

Ms. Angela Colucci and colleageu have illustrated the activities of the Resilience Practices Observatory (RPO) for the enhancement of territorial resilience through the strengthening of resilience practices in her ‘[Eco] systems of resilience practices: a reframing from the Experience of Italian Resilience Practices Observatory’ paper. RPO takes incremental and adaptive approach by integrating different aspects such as mapping resilience practices at national level, tools for resilience, resilience thinking or cultural path and actors of resilience or the networking path. She has presented how different cross cutting issues such as governance, knowledge co-production and economy are crucial in enhancing the feasibility and the stabilization of resilience practices and in contributing to social and territorial resilience in the long-run. She has discussed about some tools, methodologies, framework which corroborate her main argument – trajectories for the improvement of resilience practices and policies to guarantee systemic and synergic benefits in resilience capabilities enhancement of complex territorial systems. In order to create such framework, she has also illustrated the processes such as integration of economic and financial components in the projects, capacity building and awareness on governance to reach a stabilization & synergies, enhancing alliances between sectors and actors and involvement of stakeholders in governance system, public private cooperation.

Local knowledge mobilization: The potential for participatory GIS and photovoice methods as community resilience strategies
Holly Campbell, Allison Koornneef

‘Local knowledge mobilization: The potential for participatory GIS and photovoice methods as community resilience strategies’ was part of a larger research by Ms. Holly Cambel on Climate Change Adaptation in rural communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, with the goal to inform more inclusive policy making and governance practices. In her research, she has argued on why understanding the needs, the contexts, the social capital and the interests at play within communities are important in resilience planning and implementation. To support her argument, she has given example of Wollaston lake fire. According to Ms. Campbel, when disaster strikes, external actors (technicians, city planners, policy makers, government officials, emergency management) can either foster or inhibit community resilience. So, how can external actors integrate local knowledge into risk assessment in order to foster community resilience? Therefore, she has come up with two participatory research methods such as PGIS and Photovoice methods and argued that these tools can be used for mobilizing community knowledge in the development of resilience capacity and also making the resilience strategy more inclusive and equitable. These participatory and qualitative research methods will be utilized for increasing community resilience through the information gained and process itself. Photovoice will facilitate to gain information on food insecurity, water and sanitation, environmental justice and public health etc., whereas PGIS on community health, indigenous self-representation, land management etc. She believes that participatory research methods for informing urban resilience strategies will bridge the gap between broader development agendas and social needs.

Creative Destruction and Social Innovation dynamics comparison: San Juan, Puerto-Rico (US) and Barcelona.
Rafael De Balanzo Joue, Nuria Rodriguez-Planas, Gustavo Garcia Lopez, Marina Moscoso

Mr. Rafael, in his paper ‘Creative Destruction and Social Innovation dynamics comparison: San Juan, Puerto-Rico (US) and Barcelona’ has tried to stress on resilience thinking approach” for urban dynamics analysis; urban crisis and reorganization back-loop; adaptive cycle & panarchy barcelona and san juan, puerto-rico comparison and bottom-up urban collective social innovation & community resilience. He has used the methodologies and tools developed by the resilient thinking concept to conduct and compare two parallel SES dynamics and their evolution using empirical case studies such as the city of San Juan, Puerto-Rico, US and Barcelona, Spain after systemic crisis. He has pointed out that cities are complex adaptive system such as Natural, Human and Technical. All have an evolutionary dynamic which arrives with a change, collapse or crisis. After a period of growth, there is always a decrease and innovation. He has used a mathematical analysis model to present the urban dynamics analysis. He has undertaken a historical data analysis from 1970 to 2010 for both Barcelona and San Juan city and justified the similar growth, real estate development as well as tourism development, later crisis such as vulnerable building, social crisis. The process and trend are pretty much similar in both the cities.  Further, he has presented the similar collective social innovation & entrepeneurship transformational initiatives in both the cities, such as citizen engagement and collective action from diverse socials network, promoting community collective action/ self-building urban furniture, promoting cooperative entrepreneurship and local economy initiatives, bottom-up mapping workshops and urban participatory process. Promoting resilience thinking approach for/by stakeholders, Mr Rafael has concluded saying that bring to light the relevance of the intra- and cross-scales between the city’s institutional networks, the local neighborhoods, and urban social movements, in achieving sustainable development planning, understand current and future local community vulnerabilities.

T4.5: Housing, Economy and Community-led Actions

The session topic “Housing, economy and community-led actions” has focussed mainly on the importance of existing social networks for building resilience. People and communities gained relevance not only as the primary target of resilience, but as the main actors in the agency of resilience.

The discussion on cultural differences as in the migration context, the practice of informality in the city, the tension between growth versus well-being of the city and the grassroots movement might not be well-established in existing literature about resilience yet, but this indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of community that exist among resilience discourses.

The session proposes that urban resilience needs to be more people-centered, taking into account existing social networks and connections. The presentations point to the need for more flexibility in the implementation of policies and the need to deal with uncertainty and contingency. At the same time, local realities come as a crucial factor of analysis, although there is a possibility of replicating key concepts and guidelines to different contexts. One the one hand, a series of external aspects influence the resilience of communities, such as demographics, national health policies, economic conditions, legislation for informal workers, and energy provision. However, the presentations highlight the importance of local agency, collective action, and social networks in shaping the way communities react to everyday life adversities. Therefore, the panel as a whole points out that the intrinsic relations and internal operations of communities need to be understood and analyzed for the implementation of policies or projects. In that sense, in order to move to a more “transformability” approach, urban resilience has to partner with a specific internal logic and make use of them for a positive impact in communities.

How can the concept of resilience be applied to housing market problems?
Friederike Frieler

In the first presentation, named “How can the concept of resilience be applied to housing market problem”,  Friederike Frieler pointed out the challenge of housing in Germany caused by a demographic split, due to recent social changes such as refugee migration. In the the presented case study of the city of Leipzig, an imbalance between supply and demand of housing created a Swarm Cities” phenomenon where big cities are incapable to accommodate the demand for housing. Frieler indicated the lack of exclusive application of the resilience framework to the issues of housing market and policy. Thus, she has used the “transformability” approach of resilience, which can express the ability of the housing sector in dealing with uncertainty and contingency, enhancing the flexibility and improvisation of qualities which benefit all users. Frieler observed transformability through the lens of economic, environmental, and social aspects. Resilience in an economic perspective can propose measuring models which include specific indicators, such as housing costs related to income. While the orientation of an environmental approach is centered in construction quality, for social aspects the importance of studies at the neighborhood level has been emphasized. To sum up, the presenter proposes that the development of resilient housing policy can promote flexible housing stock and a plurality of forms of ownership. In addition, it is essential for policy makers at the local level to internalize resilience into their practice. 

The structure of collective-based working and living settlement: The case of local-specific urban kampong in Jakarta
Lucia Pramanti, Handi Chandra Putra, Wahyu Astuti

In the following presentation, “The structure of collective-based working and living settlement: The case of local-specific urban kampong in Jakarta” Lucia Indah Pramanti analysed resilience in the framework of community and local economy by using the case study of the urban village of Kampung Rawa in Jakarta. The presenter has looked at urban poor’s resilience toward the pressure of modernization in a global city: facing difficulties to enter the formal market, migrants from the countryside have developed independent economic activities developed within the dwelling space, such as the production of tofu and tempeh (soybean cake). One keypoint of Pramanti’s study is that the urgency to solve problems has led to coping mechanism to survive economically in Jakarta. In addition, the community has built strong social capital, which allows residents to cope with challenges collectively. In that sense, the resilience framework is used to show that the quality of urban areas goes beyond investment in physical space, depending also on the ability of self-management of citizens.The presentation points to future challenge of how the culture of collectivity should be not only related to new resilience paradigm, but also be manifested in a spatial form.

Informal Economy in the Fragile City as a Driver of Social Resilience. Lessons for disaster risk reduction. Focus on informal workers in the public space of Bogota, Colombia.
Juan Sebastian Benitez Bustamante

Next, Juan Sebastian Benitez Bustamante presented “Informal economy in the fragile city as a driver of social resilience. Lessons for the disaster risk reduction. Focus on informal workers in the public space of Bogota, Colombia.” The social aspect is a critical point utilized by Benitez to examine the resilience of informal workers in two sites of Bogota: Candelana and Usaquen. He observed how the survival and adaptation mechanisms of these workers operate in the public space and consequentially builds social resilience. The nonexistence of the resilience concept in the literature on informal economy directed him to borrow the concept of resilience from the disaster risk management framework. By using this method, he found that there are ten out of twelve attributes of social resilience which align with disaster resilience, especially regarding people, group and community-focus concepts. He found out that some conditions have indirectly created resilience among informal workers, including exposure to economic problems, lack of social security and essential services, evictions by public authorities, and the weather. Also, the strong solidarity network among them has been enabling the force to influence change or movement, for example against eviction from public authorities. These adaptation and survival mechanism, including flexibility, is an investment to face future sudden shock, like disasters. Finally, he underlined that further studies of resilience, which take context-based dynamism like informal activities into account, will need to be undertaken.

The role of networks in insuring health shocks. The case of poor urban communities in Accra
Ana Maria Perez Arredondo

In the presentation “The role of networks in insuring health shocks. The case of poor urban communities in Accra”, Ana Maria Perez Arredondo presented a research project that is applying the concept of One Health to analyze resilience in four cities in different parts of the world. The author presented the case of Accra, a city in Gana, in which deprived health conditions affects directly the resilience capacities of vulnerable urban populations. In the research, the conventional understanding of resilience is reframed by the idea of one health, pointing out that environmental change is affecting the relationship between humans, animals and the environment. In that sense, it is crucial to consider the relationship between these three aspects to propose trans-disciplinary practical solutions from a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, shifting from a framework of looking at urban economic growth to one that considers the well-being of citizens. The importance of how health is financed came as a key aspect of the presentation. In the case of Accra, a series of existing social networks and risk shares through community-based insurance are presented as a reaction to the deprivation of the national health financing system. The presenter highlights that these social networks need to be taken into account and understood as an opportunity in the restructuring of new health policies in the country.

From subordination to resistance and solidarity: transformative citizen action and energy vulnerability in Barcelona
Sergio Tirado Herrero

Last, in “From subordination to resistance and solidarity: transformative citizen action and energy poverty in Barcelona” Sergio Tirado Herrero presented the role of community-based organizations in fighting for more just energy provision. He outlines the challenge that a significant part of the population of Barcelona does not have access to adequate energy cannot afford to pay or have debts regarding their electricity bills. The presenter tries to criticize the bounce back idea of resilience, and fosters a more transformative framework, even suggesting that the concept of resistance could be an alternative to the idea of resilience. In that sense, the Catalan movement Alliance Against Energy Poverty is highlighted as an essential actor for giving voice to the energy poor and re-politicizing the debate around energy consumption. The presented case shows the potential of collective action in shifting individual experiences of energy poverty into networks of mutual resistance through solidarity. Such networks, aligned with the favorable political conditions in Barcelona, have been provided more just access to energy by vulnerable citizens.

T4.4b: Panel on Culture and Resilience

The special session on “Culture and Resilience” focused on the research and papers developed under the INCA project, a decision support framework for improving cross-border area resilience to disasters.

The objective of the INCA project by authors from MINES ParisTech, Paris-Dauphine University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and funded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) and DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the German Research Foundation) is to contribute to the understanding and the enhancing of the cross-border area resilience with regard to the risk of disasters with conceptual and empirical research and the development and experiment of a decision-support system taking into account the cultural dimension. On a different note, the last intervention highlighted the relevance of the local-specific interpretation of urban way of life to contribute in redefining the model of a resilient urban system.

The session highlighted the critical roles that communities have within urban sustainability transition. The first three talks, framed within the same project, revolved around the idea that in order to increase their response capacity in the event of disasters, communities need to work together to avoid breaks in “the resilience chain” and overcome the challenges that cultural differences might bring. The final talk illustrated the tensions between the global agenda and the economic targets and the specific-local needs and cultural identity fighting to survive the gentrification.

Impact of culture on urban resilience: exercising inter-organizational collaboration through scenarios.
Louise Lemyre, Eric Rigaud

The session started with the joint presentation by Eric Rigaud from MINES Paristech and Louise Lemyre from University of Ottawa on the impact of the viability of culture on resilience within the French-German project INCA dedicated to study borderland resilience and to try to develop technological methodological solutions to understand it. Resilience is associated with non-linearity and complexity and on the potential of supplies of a situation that individual organizations and territory have to recover from. But the most important thing of resilience on the territory is that its activation is based on the network of different organizations (public private, citizens, civil society) that at one moment or another have to decide, act, communicate, collaborate, cooperate. One of the viabilities of the dynamic of this network is culture. Culture has been defined, studied by anthropologists to understand how the collective adapt to their ecological safety and how they will adopt some rules in order to be able to communicate and collaborate. And also to understand how they decide to take action or how they cooperate.

Mrs Lemyre, continues explaining that diversity exists in the national identities, but also in the disciplinary background as well as the organizational cultures in terms of the way that decisions are being made. When organizations work together, in terms of their governance, sometimes they coordinate to share information but for more requiring problems they will have to cooperate and share some resources but yet keeping their identities and their decision making. For resilience, where you need to transform and find new solutions, you need to collaborate and for that you need a new scheme and a new way to interact. Resilience is about problems that are so big that one organization could not solve on their own, there is always certain parts of expertise that is missing.

A Multi-Agent System to Improve Resilience of Critical Infrastructure in Cross-Border Disasters
Miriam Klein, Farnaz Mahdavian, Marcus Wiens, Frank Schultmann

Ms Klein’s presentation outlines the scope for an agent-based simulation of cross-border cooperation in the case of a power blackout. To achieve a high resilience, it is important to overcome language and culture barriers and to fasten the information and capacity exchange. Cross-border communication and cooperation in crisis management present a high potential to analyze different trajectories of a crisis and to find strategies for fast and efficient reactions. 

The simulation shows the dynamic evolution of the crisis where the failure of critical infrastructure together with people behavior directly affects the responding capacity of the health system. Using an event-based perspective, it is possible to identify the initial cause or first order effects of failures making it possible to propose appropriate preventive measures. A second type of analysis refers to the interoperability of authorities. It can be analyzed how communication and coordination among actors of different nationalities can be improved such that delays in information flows are minimized. The project comprises behavioral studies, expert interviews and workshops, which lead to a deeper understanding of the character of a cross-border area. The project aims to strengthen the resilience of the border region by finding a strategy for the optimal intervention to avoid cascading effects in critical infrastructure and to minimize delays in information flows.

Considering Inter-organizational breaks when implementing resilience
Nour Kanan, Anouck Adrot

Kanaan and Adrot presentation talks about the issue of inter-organizational breaks. Urban resilience is the capacity of the city to revamp from destruction. Cross-border urban areas present a double challenge. Analyzing a cross-border coordination failure between France and Italy in 1999 in the Mont Blanc tunnel fire, their research focuses in studying inter-organizational breaks that might occur in disaster situations understanding those as the phenomena of social difficulties characterized by amplification of conflicts between responders in situations of crisis and erosion of social needs between the same responders than can threaten the response to the crisis. When resiliency occurs in a regional level, governance shall anticipate and avoid critical situations. The theoretical gap focuses also in the link between resilience and culture, on the lack of understanding of the nature of culture while assessing crisis management situations. They propose a multi-layered approach and analytical framing of resilience and culture. Resilience is not only about individual is not only about organizations is something that materializes and is embodied in a multi-layer holistic view of culture. They identify 4 layers: cognitive, operational, managerial and structural.

The Actualization of local-specific Urban Culture: The Case of Traditional Street Markets in Jakarta.
Regina Suryadjaja, Miya Irawati, Jo Santoso

To conclude the session, Jo Santoso talks about the problem between the functional city as a human settlement and as part of a global system. People that talk about globalization are only thinking about integrating the city in the global economic system but many people are not aware that this process of integration has an impact in the entire social ecological system of the city. Through the globalization the relation between cities in one country is changing, each city is trying more to find their own way to integrate, to be a part of the global system and have less interest in the connection with the neighbor cities. Through globalization, cities are changing their relation to the hinterland: the city will tend to take more advantage to benefit from the globalization instead of thinking how to strengthen their relation with the hinterland. On the other hand, the relation between the urban areas within the same city is changing as well through globalization system. Mr. Santoso presents a case study using the local-specific markets role in the city of Jakarta and how these can help overcome the impact of urbanization and how they present a conflicting situation with globalization. Jakarta has a different cultural system and globalization is threatening that culture. Santoso displays several pictures and description about the local-specific market and praises the cultural aspects of these Indonesian jewels.

T4.4a: Panel on Commons & Values Beyond Urban

In the era of climate change a lot has been discussed regarding urban resilience. This is considered to be a desirable state that refers to the ability of an urban system to rapidly return to its normal state of functions after a shock or disturbance.

In the session ‘Commons & Values Beyond Urban’ the attention shifted at community resilience as a component of urban resilience. The main points that were discussed were how communities can be more self-relied and build assets that they help them being less vulnerable. Resilience in most of the cases of this session was discussed more as a metaphor and as an entry point to start thinking for more equitable societies rather than as a strategy to be implemented.

In the presentations of this session has been discussed how urban policies that are supposed to help communities being more resilient often superficially adopt the term and end doing business as usual that often create new exclusions and inequalities. It is important to ask if resilience interventions benefit the most vulnerable segments of societies. Thus, there’s a need of reframing resilience through a more substantial engagement with a term and though making it the status quo in the formal planning system. Moreover, it is important to get values into urban planning that go beyond merely growth, expansion, and money discussions and rethink the relationship to civic infrastructures and pursue for more participatory societies.

The Value of Collective and Individual Assets in Building Urban Community Resilience
Wijitbusaba Marome, Diane Archer, Boonanan Natakun, Nuttavikhom Phanthuwongpakdee

The first presentation of this session had the title ‘The value of collective and individual assets in building urban community resilience’ and was focusing on marginalized communities in Bangkok, Thailand. The presentation focuses on the main risks that three marginalized communities face in Bangkok, i.e. floods, droughts, and economic crisis as a result of them. Official response mechanisms are not localized, so they might fail to help these vulnerable communities. Thus, it is examined the development of collective-self help adaptation strategies. The main challenges to overcome are the lack of long term planning and the dependence on external help. In order to overcome these challenges, the presentation proposes the use of a toolkit for the creation of collective assets such as public spaces and saving mechanisms that will help communities being more resilient.

Rethinking Urban Commons in the Age of Transductive Territorial Production: A Study on Relational Networks in Rapidly Growing Asian and Australasian Cities.
Manfredo Manfredini

The second presentation had the title  ‘Rethinking urban commons in the age of transductive territorial production: a study on relational networks in rapidly growing Asian and Australasian cities’ and focuses on the changing public space in Auckland New Zealand. Resilience in this presentation was related to repetition and redundancy and therefore it was used as a metaphor and not something that could be implemented as a strategy. The main point of the presentation was that the public space change has been transforming through new technologies, social media, and hegemonic regimes into tele-, quasi-, and/or pseudo-public space. These spatial concepts refer to spatial typologies such as malls, privatized public space, and digital public space. These new paradigms of public space are based on consumption and can be highly exclusive leading to inequalities within the society.

Influence of grassroots initiatives on forming urban resilience within communities
Frank Othengrafen, Lena Greinke, Filip Śnieg

The third presentation was titled ‘Influence of grassroots initiatives on forming urban resilience within communities’ and was a comparative study of grassroots movements in Thessaloniki, Greece, and Hanover, Germany. Both cities have similarities in terms of size of the population and the importance of social movements for the production of urban space. However, the motivations and the partnerships of these grassroots initiatives have been different for each case. In Thessaloniki, the examined grassroots initiatives have been created after the 2011 Greek financial crisis as coping mechanisms, i.e. out of necessity. Moreover, these initiatives have been quasi-informal and developed in a legal grey zone. In the case of Hanover, social movements are usually in partnership with the municipality and occurred to deal with environmental issues and to pursue more affordable housing. The main challenge for both cases is that grassroots movements were too focused on the district level and the question was how to scale them up.

Assessing Community Resilience of Rural Villages supported by the Korean Authoritarian Regime
Chung Ho Kim

The fourth presentation of this session was titled ‘Assessing community resilience of rural villages supported by the Korean authoritarian regime’ and examines the South Korean New Village Movement (KNVM) as a form of demographic resilience. In the context of South Korea, rapid urbanization has been seen as a threat that should be controlled and thus they started implementing the KNVM, a rural development program, as a reaction to the rapid urbanization. But KNVM could also be considered as a way to urbanize rural land. The main themes of this program were: built environment transformation, population changes, and resource management changes. There have been different plans associated with this program such as the Korean family plan of 1972-1981 and the Korean deforestation plan of 1973-1978. The final socio-ecological assessment of the program revealed that KNVM was a large-scale, top-down implementation that decreased diversity, increased complexity in urban and rural management, and was inconsistent on its temporal and spatial dimensions.

In Pursuit of Urban Resilience
Laura Beckwith

The final presentation of this session had title ‘In pursuit of urban resilience’ and was referring to resilience and inclusion in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The research objective was to examine how marginalized communities mobilize their own resources in order to be resilient by themselves. The research was focused on an informal settlement in the peri-urban zone of the Phnom Penh. For the inhabitants of this settlement education of their children in urban schools has been a big priority. Since their area has a very limited road network, they created a road with collected trash, the ‘trash road’, in order to improve their connectivity with the city area. This can be seen as a tactic of the inhabitants of the informal settlement to be included in the city.

T4.3: Networks for Resilience

“Networks for Resilience” session had diverse and yet somehow similar discussions and findings. They all examined the community’s behavioral patterns in the face of their adversities, whether it being a sudden shock or more of long term stress.

Overall, they all defined resilience in the metaphorical sense through deeper understanding of the societal and cultural components. The first examined the transnational networks and how it supported communities overcome their challenges. The second presentation, provided toolkits that prepared communities to analyse disaster risks. The next one, studied how socio-spatial urban planning strategies can strengthen social cohesion as a long term approach for building community resilience. The following presentation, conducted a comparative study to understand the role of identity in building resilient neighborhoods. The later presentation investigated the grassroots initiatives produced by social movement to create resilient rivers against floods and to generally improve their public spaces. In the final presentation, it showcased how building capacity through collaborative workshops and community participations can improve neighborhoods.

The session provided deep and rich insights of the various types of community networks and their strategies in coping with crisis and everydays risks. In terms of solid urban resilience framework, Mateus presentation examined how grassroot communities initiatives used green infrastructure for enhancing the riverside as a mitigation strategy against flooding. He combined the metaphorical component of resilience with the ecosystem service strategies. Therefore, I found it to be the most successful in responding to the conference message of how to reframe resilience implementation. All the other presentations, examined the more social aspect of resilience and tries to understand the complex systems embedded within its vulnerable communities and their collective capacity to cope, adapt and sometimes maintain or transform their situation when experiencing disturbing challenges and threats of their livelihoods.

Translocal networking as a cornerstone for community resilience: Activities by the Asian Coalition for Housing Right
Ley Asrid

For the first presentation, Astrid shared her perspective on the role of trans-local networking of communities and what role does it play for the understanding of community resilience through studying the activities of the Asian Coalition for housing rights. 

She began the presentation by defining community resilience reciting other authors and references. Her understanding of community resilience is mainly derived from the social resilience definition which is “coping, adapting and transformative capacities for facing multiple shocks and stresses (Keck and Sakdapolrak 2013, McIan et al 2014, Saja et al 2018)”. In addition, she mentions how community resilience stresses the capacities and resources of collective actors from the social resilience framework by Saja et al 2018. Then she provides a couple of limitations which are overlooking the framing of community and overlooking the threats of maladaptation. Then she moves forward to the translocality defining it as globally organized communities that are better prepared to face events, stresses and shocks. It is more relevant to migrant communities, and social practice is usually from below and above. She also mentions one limitation of translocality where the urban poor communities might have limited capacities to organize transnationally. 

After providing her conceptual frameworks of her studies, Astrid expands further through her research in Thailand. She discussed mainly three research projects. The first is the housing for the poor for the local action to global networks and how the community created peer to peer exchange networks of mutual support and leaning. Her research aimed to understand how far transnational networks has an impact on those communities undergoing negotiations with their local governments. The second example she provides is the Banbua Canal Community where the community organised themselves to upgrade the canals and make way for future flooding using the ACHR participatory process. The third example looking into how ACHR network operate during the shock of Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004. 

Finally she reflects on community resilience by concluding that translocal networks focuses on networking beyond rebuilding, organising prior crisis, avoiding overburdening local communities, and acting as a complementary strategy. 

Measuring Informal Urban Settlements’ Pathway to Resilience Building
Nadia Cruz

In the second presentation, Cruz introduces GOAL and its toolkit ARC-D that basically guides communities within informal urban settlements build resilience. She begins with defining resilience as how GOAL understands resilience as the capacity of communities to anticipate, absorb, then adapt, and finally transform the shocks and stresses. She also mentions that GOAL resilience outcomes (positive and negative)  are produced through asking of what? to what? through what (capacities)?

Moving forward, she reveals the “Analysis of the Resilience of Communities to Disaster” toolkit. The ARC-D toolkit or guidelines was generated from the “Good practices research report” by John Twigg which incorporates 167 main characteristics of resilience to disasters. The toolkit has been applied around 11 countries facing disasters. According to Cruz, the toolkit is comprised of Questionnaire , an online platform to collect information (CommCare), and a methodological Guide. Then she explains that the toolkit measures 30 components of four thematic topics: a) understanding disaster risk b) strengthening governance to manage disaster risk c) reducing vulnerability d) enhancing disaster preparedness to “Build Back Better” recovery. 

The case study chosen to explain the implementation of the toolkit is located in an informal urban settlement in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. They applied the toolkit in three neighborhood with high risk. After measuring the situation, the results used to inform 4 key socio-economic systems: neighborhood landslides early warning system, system provision and maintenance of neighborhood drainage, market system for the provision of basic food supply through neighborhood stores, social housing maret system. As for the conclusion, GOAL reflects on community resilience by highlighting the importance of connecting people to socioeconomic systems to reduce vulnerability. Lastly, community resilience building efforts can be connected to the informal urban settlement through context specific analysis.

Social Cohesion in a multi-ethnic urban neighborhood - Strengthening community resilience through urban planning
Tim Lukas, Bo Tackenberg

Lukas and Tackenberg presented their research Resilience through Social Cohesion (ResOrt). The objective of their research is to develop an integrated set of recommendations for organisations on how aspects of social cohesion (as essential resilience factors) can be included in their strategy development and how can social cohesion be strengthened. Their research questioned “what role does social cohesion play in the work of civil protection organisations and local authorities in coping with crisis, disasters and social upheavals?” Furthermore, their research examined which socio spatial conditions and cooperative organization can strengthen social cohesions.  Moving on, they explained their methodology where they investigated through written-proposal population survey, lost-letter-experiments, social area analysis, expert interviews and workshops, and finally guided interviews with residents. Through their methodology, they established a theoretical model of community resilience that describes social cohesion in everyday life. The components of social cohesion are reciprocity, participation, canon of values and norms, social trust and social networks. Then they narrowed it down into social cohesion in multi ethnic societies, and mentioned some of the negative outcomes of ethnic diversity in communities. They highlighted how public space promotes social cohesion because its a shared space that enables exchange daily, however, these encounters can also reinforce prejudices resulting from ethnic diversity. Therefore, they emphasis the important role of urban planning for multi ethnic societies (festivals, markets, social activities).

They concluded by restating the importance of public space and urban planning in promoting social cohesion as community resilience is a long-term approach to be considered before the emergence of disasters. They also mention that community resilience can be strengthened through knowledge exchange between different organisation. 

Making Neighborhoods Resilient: The Social Construction of Identity
Leandro Madrazo, Ángel Martín Cojo, Mario Hernández

Leandro presented their research project known as “PROHABIT”. The research studied the bonds that exist between people and the places they inhabit, as well as their resistance against new plans produced by the administration. The research objective was to analyse the impact of urban transformation on three neighborhoods, and to understand the process of creating a collective identity linked to place with the participation of professionals and citizens. Basically, conducting a multidimensional analysis investigating both the built environment and lived environment. He further explains their methodology of the process of collecting information through both inductive and deductive investigations. The process conducted were interviews, observations, documentation, and participation. Then they structured the information into the following categories: Themes, Questions, Facts, Evidences, Places, Concepts. He then expanded  to describe one key product they created that allowed great information sharing and mapping. This product is an online platform called “Prohabit Mapper”. This online platform is free and open to the public, and allows their participation and exchange of information. 

Moving on, he reflected on the social construction of an identity and how it relates to Resilience. He recites the definition as Resilience related to how a system changes but still retain its core functions, structures, feedback and identity. He also reflects on the social cultural perspective where the identity of the urban system is applied through permanence. Then he explains the dilemma of identity, torn between permanence and change, where identity is preserved but continuously reinterpreted and updated. The conducted a comparative case study in three neighborhoods in Barcelona (Plus Ultra, Vallcarca, Trinitat Nova), studying the social construction of the neighborhoods’ identities. In Trinitat and Plus Ultra, they resisted new plans to preserve their identity. Where Vallcarca, the new generations re-appropriated and re-interpreted the memories to strengthen the resilience of the place. In conclusion, All three neighborhoods constructed the identity of the place to resist future delineation plans, therefore identity became instrumental for their resilience.

Possibilities for Resilient Grassroots Urban Planning: strategies used by a neighborhood movement in Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Mateus Lira da Matta Machado

Mateus started his presentation by providing some reflections on resilience and in particular trying to understand resilient communities as the byproduct of inequalities challenges. He describes how environmental and spatial injustice are causing uneven distribution of resources and therefore, a pathway to exposure to more risks. Therefore, he examines the rise of (resilient) grassroots urban planning through urban social movements since the state is not neutral in its position. 

The methodology used to study the grassroots social movements is through conducting interviews with the local leaders and communities activist. His case study is located in Belo Horizonte, his hometown in Brazil, in particular, analysing the rivers and its environmental and spatial injustices. The rivers are surrounded by low income neighborhoods who face negligence, sewage and waste dumping, and occasional flooding affect house. He mentions that the state is only involved when in emergency solutions but not long term solutions. Then he studied the grassroot initiatives in Ribeiro de Abreu neighborhoods, in the periphery of the city. The community pushed for a partnership with the state demanding a better neighborhood through basic improvements and more sustainable solutions of its rivers waterfronts. The partnership with the state created three positive outcomes: sense of citizenship, integration of different sectors, and affecting how municipality operates. The social movement claimed for creation of public spaces and parks around the river. After the relocation of some of the families from the risk areas of flooding, the state stopped the project, and communities continued collectively through constructing self built public spaces in the emptied area in the events in the weekends. He highlights how this social movement improved the self esteem of the local and enhanced thee sense of ownership. He mentions both challenges, the internal (community difference) and external (dependency on government) the community endured. 

In his conclusion, he stated that building grassroots resilience is from three aspects , first expanding beyond the limits of the neighborhoods and understanding the water basin as a system, combining self-led initiatives with partnership with the state, and claiming for spatial and environmental justice. He explains how social movements are integral stakeholders for building resilience in cities, the present new imaginaries and more sustainable solutions for the cities, and they also propose new political arrangements such as institutionalizing participation. Therefore, they have to be  supported, mapped, registered and analysed. 

Resignification of degraded public spaces in Guanajuato and in Bordeaux: citizen re-appropriation in the frame of intensive workshops developed by the University of Guanajuato (UG) and the superior national school of architecture and landscape of Bordeaux (ensapBx)
Carlos Gotlieb

In the final presentation of this session, Gotlieb presented the collaborative work made in Guanajuato and Bordeuax as part of the Academic Cooperation Agreement. The workshops objectives is first to establish close collaboration with local and regional authorities, which led to signing decentralized cooperation contracts where university partners act as a mediators. Second, to offer students the opportunity to participate in a real project scenarios and hands on experience. The urban projects of the workshops aims to mainly change the local community perceptions of their public space and to support their re-appropriation of their publics space as ways to enforce identity and community ties. He also mentions that resilience is seen through the capacity of an obsolete territory to generate strong social bonds during spatial conceptions with university, institutional actors and inhabitants. He presented two workshops, the first workshop was help in Santuario in 2015-2016 with the title of Metropolitan identity and citizen ownership. The workshop included an analysis and recognition of the site with the participation of the residents. Also, it incorporated meetings with technicians and key local actors. The main aim of the project was to analyse elements that produced local neighborhood identity. The workshop resulted with proposals for public spaces appropriation of H Galeana Street, and the proposals and jury reviews were held in the same street. The main finding of the workshop is that workshops can act as detonator of neighborhood activities. 

In the second workshop titled Between City and Nature was  located in Martignas 2016-2017. The workshop consisted of field visit with technicians from the city and meeting with the municipal team to exam site problems. The aim of the workshop was to push the student to develop actions and presentations to the authorities and residents. Also, for the students to debate their proposals with the local community for their feedbacks. He ended the presentation by showcasing a video documenting their experience. 

T4.2: The politics of resilience & gentrification

In the politics of resilience and gentrification, the presentations focused on the use of urban resilience as a metaphor for framing their arguments. The predominant focus was around the social networks that were at risk or how more resilient urban environments would benefit social-ecological systems.

Urban resilience in this context was used as an indicator to judge gentrification and a guiding principle to measure positive cultural variability of urban environments. Gentrification due to the implementation of resilience strategies and its effects are common themes, seeking to bring to light the importance of a resilient social basis to the city.

The presentations within this topic session questioned the impact of current urban resilience policy in cities; that are incomplete and oversea the social importance in urban resilience. That pre-existing social networks need to be maintained and bolstered and that gentrification, due to over-technical resolution of resilience strategy, is leading to an erosion of fundamental societal systems in cities. A re-framing then of resilience of all the topics align with the conference reframing that resilience should seek to address the increasing social inequalities in cities. They all seek to re-address and give meaning to the vulnerable in society; that the ‘vulnerable’ form a constituent part in the social-economic systems that make a city resilient. Here then, key to all these presentations was to reframe urban resilience to recognize the qualities found in ‘vulnerability’ and that resilience definitions are often over-simplified in their social framing.

Delving into the politics of resilience: the role of social resilience cells and their alliances in the co-implementation of housing plans. The case study of HousingNOLA.
Angeliki Paidakaki, Hans Leinfelder, Constanza Parra, Pieter Van den Broek

The first presentation used SRC (social resilience cells) to analyze resilience politics in relation to post-disaster housing. Its aims were to analyze the efficacy of SRC in the implementation of post-disaster housing plans, i.e how stakeholder engagement is managed and how SRC’s can become part of local policy to ensure Council members embrace it and to outlive any political cycle. It argued that SRC’s need to become stronger at a state level as local states don’t have the power to apply their own policies. It argued that sustainable development is still relevant, and how sustainability and resilience can be aligned. The key to the study in understanding the relevance of SRC was to ensure pressure is applied to governance to ensure the coproduction of recovery plans that treat all affected areas and people in an equitable way. They hold a unique position in multi-level governance structures and are able to engage with housing plans and policy to ensure political cycles do not interfere with disaster recovery plans. Additionally, the presentation argued that there are literary voids in coproduction and the distribution of power in housing planning in disaster recovery settings.

Linking the gentrification of traditional retail markets and the resilience of centres of commerce
Pedro Guimaraes

This presentation argued that the gentrification of retail spaces is causing retail spaces, such as traditional markets to become less resilient. An erosion of these traditional retail spaces due to gentrification and tourism is resulting an erosion of traditional commerce for local residents. Therefore the presentation argued that gentrification not only degrades retail resilience but the social systems of place. The case study of Campo de Ourique was used to demonstrate how the touristic draw of a traditional market place is a causality of its gentrification. This presentation used gentrification metaphorically to describe a system that is harmed by gentrification. It didn’t seek to idealize how urban resilience may provide traditional marketplaces with a process of bouncing back and forward. Rather it seemed to take a conservative viewpoint that these marketplaces need to remain intact in order for them to be resilient. It argued it’s the social importance of these markets, creating a social place for commerce and encounters, where social bonds are formed through diverse means. It sees the old retail markets as assets not to be changed. In this presentation the argument is framed around the resilience towards an impending gentrification. The resilience framework was used as an indicator to disseminate when the market has become gentrified

Don’t Blame it on the Sunshine! An Exploration of the Spatial Distribution of Heat Injustice Across Two Antwerp City Districts
Sarah Feder, Manon Burbidge, Shudi Yan, Tibbe Smith Larsen

The focus of the argument within this presentation was of heat injustice, that the most vulnerable are often subject to hotter urban environments. In used green spaces as a case point to contend the most marginalized have less access to these spaces; that help mediate climatic conditions in cities. Rather than arguing for a form of resilience per-say, the presenter used their example to demonstrate a positive effect or bonus of urban resilience thinking. Here then it is using resilience to leverage their argument for a more equitable form of green space in cities. Key to the argument is environmental injustice and the joint process of neo-liberal planning and social exclusion. It seeks to provide model for a resident participation to map heat injustice in urban environments to inform more equitable planning policy in the urban environments. Through this equitable participatory urban model, the presentation aligned with urban resilience thinking in that a city to be resilient need to function in multiple scales.

Gentrification-resilient cities. Urban livability and anti-gentrification requirements for improving cities and social life
Alessandro Plaisant, Alice Sulas

The critique in this presentation was around gentrification eroding cities (in this case Barcelona’s) urban resilience. The goal is to realign policies towards more sustainable model. It used resilience as an indicator toward gentrified areas of the city; ones which could then be intervened in with anti-gentrification measures to re-enhance the social resilience of the areas. Again here, alike with the presentation of retail resilience, the argument is that gentrification erodes unique social qualities of place. However, the presentation provided a framework to bounce forward and create more resilient neighborhoods, eradicating and building back better for future stability of urban communities. The argument provided an operational framework for resilience in assigning key drivers to move towards more resilient cities. Here as with other presentation the argument was of social innovation playing a key role and anti-gentrification as a measure for more equitable urban environments. The argument here is for resilience to gentrification, again though measuring the positive social factors that can be built reintroduced into planning policy not only to fight gentrification but intern provide more resilient urban spaces.

Uneven (green) landscapes of resilience and protection: Climate gentrification in urban climate adaptation
Galia Shokry, Isabelle Anguelovski, James Connolly

This presentation intended to disseminate whether green and resilience mechanisms meet the needs and protect the most marginalized of societies. Here urban resilience is critiqued, seeking to understand its limitations in meeting these needs. It also raises the debate around climate gentrification; that green and resilient interventions lead to gentrification in areas. The argument was to reframe resilience research; or rather highlight the potential harm that investment in certain green infrastructures can bring by enhancing inequalities in society. Again within this presentation was a reframing that considered the impacts of marginalized people in society due to gentrification arguing that the policy emphasis on green infrastructure as a strategy to create more urban resilience is eroding the social fabric of cities. Here then a re-framing aligned with fostering more bottom-up resilience building strategies can be seen. The research questions whether ‘green-infrastructures’ could further exacerbate the plight vulnerable communities through displacement due to gentrification and create cities for the privileged. Additionally, it critiqued the use of green infrastructures as a place-making tool, questioning its approach as part of a holistic urban resilience strategy.

T4.1: Urban Regeneration and Communities

Sustainability of cities is one of the main goals of this century, being today an historically critical point of the environmental and urban management. Often, to reach it, governments have exalted the implementation of resilience strategies, but having a confused idea about this concept.

The mainstream notion about resilience lacks considering communities as the trigger of municipal processes, specifically when talking about existent systems to be changed. Through different examples of bottom-up strategies, working on reinforcing social connections at a local level, it is possible to verify that create a resilient community is an essential step for making a regeneration process sustainable. The five presentations all point out a big general gap in the local management of risk factors. The usual underestimation of the potential of the sense of ‘we’ness’ in urban processes causes, nowadays, inefficient governance and is impeding the formation of a resilient society. As can be noticed with the different case studies, the importance of living being in a complex community is to be capable to trigger bottom-up problem-solving strategies. In this sense, the reframing of the concept itself of resilience seems to be the only solution to address the always more common hazards that threaten our cities. The current attitude to look at them from a simplistic infrastructural point of view – in a moment when our world seems to be facing the most dramatic consequences of the past practice – is causing the unsustainability of the urban future.

Community-led infrastructure upgrading in informal settlements in Manila: communities defining climate resilience for themselves
Corrine Cash, Skye Dobson

Corrine Cash talks about the notion of “Asset-Based Community Development” (ABCD), underling that the same asset – differently from the common thought – can be represented by any kind of people capability. With the aim of “building knowledge together”, an innovative interpretation of resilience is presented, which strives to foster collective organization for upgrading their local urban conditions. In particular, the speaker introduces the successful case study of Valenzuela (Manila, Philippines), where a group of people – living in an informal settlement – managed to build social resilience thanks to their ability to reinforce neighbourhood cohesion, pushed by communitarian goals. Having been threatened with eviction, in fact, they organized a community savings collection, which brought to the formalization of their district. Moreover, the creation of this social net strengthened their understanding of the public needs, deciding – with a participatory process – the demolition of their own house to construct better-planned, resilient infrastructures (the so-called “Re-blocking” intervention). The formation of partnerships was, therefor, the required mean to obtain the political consideration needed to make changes seeking to sustainability. Even so, the necessity of creating a network around the world, sharing this kind of experience, raises the question about the involvement of diverse people to replicate this practise in different contexts.

Community Participation in Slum Rehabilitation in Mumbai, India
Shantanu Khandkar, Janhavi Khandkar

The approach of Shantanu Khandkar directly face the political aspect of the management of social resilience. Talking about the case study of Mumbai’s slums, where participatory processes are something new, still scarcely introduced in the urban routine, he investigates how the role of neighbours can play an active role in such a scenario. If just during the 1990s the possibility of rehabilitate informal settlements has been taken into consideration in India, the discussion about community engagement is, till now, open. In particular, one of the most significant argument is about the role of NGOs as mediators between the State and the population. In the analysed example, where the government seems to do nothing for trying to formalise the unsustainable situation, NGOs are the only one which could give a voice to marginalized communities. The difficulties in making this possible are, however, related both to the lack of capacities of the organizations, and the heterogeneity of the society. Resilience in Mumbai seems to be strictly wedded to this rigid top-down political construction, which hinder the spontaneous formation of social partnerships that, as demonstrated in few Indian examples (SPARC, NSDF, Mahila Milan), while claiming for basic rights, foster the sense of community from the bottom.

Incremental Urbanism: Designing a Resilient Urban Strategy for the Ger Districts of Ulaanbaatar
Joshua Bolchover

What Joshua Bolchover underlines with the presentation of his paper is the importance of social connections in an extreme environment, as can be seen in Mongolia, where he found his case study in the city of Ulaanbaatar.  In a context of rigid winter temperature, rapid demographic increase, high pollution index and worrisome low density sprawl, the challenge of sustainability seems impossible to achieve. The governance strategy, in fact, has supported the purchase of big devalued lots by the inhabitants, promoting the “right to land”, without creating a proper infrastructure or public space between them. Maybe this could be also related to the vernacular architecture in Ulaanbaatar, characterized by the typology of the “ger”, which fosters the isolation of its inhabitants, avoiding the formation of a neighbourhood, and, consequently, a social sense. Taking into consideration this existent background, the project proposed, aiming to build capacities in the population to achieve a sustainable urban development, works with two main focuses. At a city level, making people acknowledged about the possibility of increasing land value by a more compact organization of their parcels and the creation of better infrastructure, collaborating with their neighbours; at a building level, improving the technology of traditional structures for a better quality of living.

Urban gendered ‘we’ness of resilience
Hanna Ruszczyk

“How people change cities? And how cities change people?” these are the two strong questions leading Hanna Ruszczyk’s arguments around the topic of gender in furthering resilience. Being city management a fluid matter, interesting people at different levels but requiring a holistic vision of the common goal, the term “community” seems too simplistic and reducing the complexity of society who has to be taken into account and involved in the urban process. The object of resilience studies should be, indeed, ‘we’ness as a more heterogeneous group of human beings, who must work together to face the hazards that they are exposed to. The speaker presented the case of Bharatpur, in Nepal, remarking that risk governance should be, and is often, decided at a local level. Here, women are certainly the less considered in the decision-making, and this represents the problem of the lack of a sense of ‘we’ness in the contemporary society. The consequences of this situation can be seen in the comparison between the informal and the formal administration of civic matters, where the latter lacks the ability to consider the needs of a consistent part of the inhabitants, creating conflicts and enhancing an unsustainable development. The reframing of urban resilience is necessary to understand the complexity of society and their needed engagement in addressing urban challenges.

Regenerative Design for Community Resilience in a Historically Black, Low Income Neighborhood in Houston, Texas: Frameworks, Processes, Housing & Infrastructure
Shelly Pottorf

The talk by Shelly Pottorf proposes an analysis of the relations between living systems and human beings, reflecting upon their own essence as yearning entities inserted in a “greater whole”. The main assumption regards regenerative development, considering necessary the change of the living being to help the modification of the bigger system. In this sense, self-actualization and the “greater whole” actualization are wedded together and co-related, meaning the existence of an indissoluble cause-effect bond linking them. If this is true, the participation of singularities in shaping the whole has to be the starting point of every successful governance. Hence, a big interrogative raises about the determination of boundaries in the system: “how big is ‘here’?”. The potentials given to the local identity when addressing a communitarian matter strictly depend on this question, whose relativity can be considered asking it to different people or authorities. So, the mission of political bodies is to think in this sense, understanding the boundaries of their systems, and catalysing communities to work as a “greater whole” to face transitions and change.