T4.7: Resilience Itself

The overarching theme of this session is community resilience and the topic particularly called on responses around resilience itself. Contributions argued the inability of the resilience framework to include local knowledge and social capital generated into its strategies and oscillated between definitions around tensions of equilibrium and adaptation.
The overarching theme of this session is community resilience and the topic particularly called on responses around resilience itself. All the presentations had a diverse perspective on the subject, critically analysing the risks of proposed practises in Ecuador, the possibilities of regional and local food systems in Netherlands, the dangers of over-tourism on the ecosystem of a neighborhood in Kyoto, the microscopic local resilience frameworks developed in Jakarta and the role of design and urban planning in adaptive capacity in Colombia.
Advancing the evidence base for sustainable city-region food systems
Sigrid Wertheim-Heck, Melika Levelt, Lisa ten Brug, Jessica van Bossum

The session focused on the influence of cities in food system design and aims to investigate if localisation of food production is possible, in order to deal with the dependency of international trade, food processing and greenhouse emissions related to food flows. The interventions possibly relating to existing resilience implementations criticize the dichotomy of alternative food production and conventional large scale provision centers; without linking these two practises there can be no evidence for a resilience framework that could challenge the topic at hand. As a result, assumptions are created and the aim of this research is to challenge these assumptions in order to create methodologies. In this case resilience is not used as a metaphorical concept but aims to use qualitative and quantitative data, focusing on the city of Almere in the Netherlands. The research analyzes the process of three predominant stakeholders, producers, suppliers and consumers drawing on their interrelationships and stresses the importance of human relationships in network flows especially when it comes to mobility of goods. The key points in this session helped to analyse the complexity of stakeholder relations, and strived to create a flexible working framework, ending with the question how can the food market become regionalised?  

Guayaquil: critical analysis of its approaches towards urban resilience.
Xavier Mendez Abad, Kris Scheerlinck, Hans Leinfelder

The session provided a review and critical analysis of urban resilience planning in Guayaquil, Ecuador, by asking the question, resilience for who? In the context of a Latin American city torn by climate change, the research is questioning whether or not the practises related to resilience adaptation do not deal with the most vulnerable but actually even lead to an exacerbation of the existing inequalities. The interventions of the government’s urban regeneration plan mainly focus on the city center and in economic development, and a new study based on vulnerability index and indicators in practicality led to a disregard of the influences and real life effects of these implementations on the community level. The speaker stresses the inexistence of a capacity to absorb local knowledge and the capacity for this level is limited to risk management and not really proactive resilient design. The concluding remarks do not particularly launch new ideas but present the overarching risks and opportunities with this kind of implementation.

The Formation of the local-traditional Urban Settlement in the Globalised Environment: The case of “Garment City” Cipadu in Jakarta
Handi Chandra

This session was preoccupied with the relationship of locality placed within the modern urban phenomena of the city of Jakarta. Resilience in this case is used as a metaphorical concept to describe the microcosm of Cipadu in relation to the metropolis. The speaker started with a reference of the right to the city as a way of self-determination of a community within the urban context. The research of the local resilient framework revolves around the capacity of the community to organise, create, innovate and connect to the surrounding economic system. There was not a substantial critique to the existing resilience implementations, however the speaker analysed in depth the context of the case study in order to build a problem statement. The session concluded in the realisation of how this community has created a self-sustained city in itself connecting to a wider network of systems like this.

Managing Resilience in Neighborhood against Over-Tourism. Case Study on Kyoto
Daisuke Abe

This session focused on the challenge of over-tourism in Kyoto, Japan with a comparative research to Barcelona. Resilience in this case, is considered as the resilience of a community of local permanent residents against the threat of top down development, temporal and transient touristic flows and saturation of intangible community interconnections, therefore resilience was more connected to perseverance to a long term crisis of urban development transformations. The main issue is the lack of legislation or political will to deal with the rise of land price, displacement and change in land use. The research analyses institutional framework and regulations and draws connections for possible solutions with the case of Barcelona, however it doesn’t challenge existing resilience frameworks for this implementation and concludes with a precautionary remark of the impending challenges of over-tourism. 

Urban planning: Integrating resilience and sustainability in the regulatory framework
Francisco Garcia, Cecilia Ribalaygua

This session was the outcome of a four-year research investigation into how urban planning can influence climate change adaptation plans. The transdisciplinarity of the group narrowed the focus of the research from an urban planning, architectural perspective and aimed to develop replicable methodologies to increase adaptive capacities through quantitative evidence based strategies. The research stresses the importance of green infrastructure as a key strategy, and built on three case studies in different cities in Colombia as a testing ground for the framework. Although the aim of the research is to integrate planning and resilience, in reality, it uses pre-existing tools, indicators and methodologies without the ability to substantially reframe the paradigm itself. In addition, the speaker stressed the importance of local context and community-based knowledge but did not provide sufficient evidence on who is resilience supposed to benefit. The main strategies for adaptation that were developed, were a physical and legal identification of available regeneration areas and the ability to integrate these methodologies into the planning system.

The session addressed the topic of reframing urban resilience implementation by pointing out the gaps in the design of methodologies that can not synthesize the complexity of community knowledge production with the wider framework of national, regional legislation, development processes, and economic systems. Most of the sessions considered and challenged the question: resilience for who? It tried to do so by aiming at processes that could integrate local networks in general adaptedness or analyzed local systems striving to preserve or return to a fixed equilibrium or criticized resilience frameworks imposed by top-down institutions that could not reframe the paradigm in a way that allowed for local level transformations to the impending crisis. One of the most encouraging insights was the acknowledgment of the power of human relations in shifting the wider paradigm of network flows in a city.